Fri Nov 28 10:41:21 SGT 2014  
SINGAPORE
STD
    Genital Warts
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Genital Warts | SINGAPORE STD ™

Summary

Genital Warts | SINGAPORE STD ™ @singaporestd_com: Genital warts, Singapore. Private & confidential service.

Advertisement: Come to sunny Singapore to have your testing and treatment. Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
SHIM CLINIC
SINGAPORE STD ™
168 Bedok South Avenue 3 #01-473
Singapore 460168
Tel: (+65) 6446 7446
Fax: (+65) 6449 7446
24hr Answering Tel: (+65) 6333 5550
Web: Genital Warts | SINGAPORE STD ™
Opening Hours
Monday to Friday: 9 am to 3 pm, 7 pm to 11 pm
Saturday & Sunday: 7 pm to 11 pm
Public Holidays: Closed
Last registration: one hour before closing time.
Walk-in clinic. Appointments not required.
Bring NRIC, Work Pass or Passport for registration.

Description

Table of Contents

Genital warts: penile warts / vaginal warts / anal warts / anogenital warts / venereal warts / condyloma / condylomata acuminata / "cauliflower" sex disease.

References

Warts - on male sex organ Genital warts appear within 3 months after sexual contact with an infected person.

Genital warts:

  • are usually soft, pink cauliflower-like growths or flesh-coloured bumps on the sex organs
  • may also be hard and smooth
  • occur alone or in groups
  • tend to recur after treatment
  • increase the risk of cervical cancer in women.


Warts - on female sex organ An infected woman may infect her newborn during childbirth.

A person with genital warts can infect others through sexual contact.



Genital warts treatment / HPV treatment

HPV / human papillomavirus.

  • 120 known human papillomavirus (HPV)
  • 51 HPV types, and 3 subtypes are genital HPV as they infect the genital mucosa.
  • 31 genital HPV types are low risk
  • 6 genital HPV types are intermediate risk
  • 17 genital HPV types are high risk
They cause Cervical cancer HPV vaccine (previously known as cervical cancer vaccine) types:
  • Gardasil® [HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Quadrivalent (Types 6, 11, 16, and 18) Vaccine, Recombinant]
  • Cervarix® [HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Bivalent (Types 16 and 18) Vaccine, Recombinant]
  • V503 [HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Nonavalent (Types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) Vaccine, Recombinant]
References Gardasil® [HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Quadrivalent (Types 6, 11, 16, and 18) Vaccine, Recombinant] References Cervarix® [HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Bivalent (Types 16 and 18) Vaccine, Recombinant] References V503 [HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Nonavalent (Types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) Vaccine, Recombinant] - to be released in 2013 STD vaccine / hepatitis vaccine shot/jab/injection to prevent some STDs

Vaccine Against Disease Age D
o
s
e
s
Dose schedule Price
per
dose
(SG$)
Havrix™ 1440 Adult Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A ≥19y 2 m 0 & 6-12 $90/=
Twinrix® Hepatitis A virus
Hepatitis B virus
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
1-15y 2 m 0, 6-12 $120/=
≥16y 3 m 0, 1, 6
4 d 0, 7, 21 & m 12
Inactivated / Fractional / Protein / Subunit / Recombinant
Engerix™-B 20 μg Hepatitis B virus Hepatitis B 11-15y 2 m 0, & 6 $50/=
≥20y 3 m 0, 1, & 6
4 m 0, 1, 2, & 12 or
d 0, 7, 21 & m 12
Gardasil® HPV
types 6, 11, 16, & 18
Genital warts
Cervical cancer
9-26y 3 m 0, 2, & 6 or
m 0, 1, & 4
$195/=
Cervarix® HPV
types 16, & 18
(31, 33, & 45)
10-25y 3 m 0, 1, & 6
m 0, 1, & 5
m 0, 2½, 12
$195/=
V503 HPV
types 6, 11, 16, 18,
31, 33, 45,
52, & 58
3 m 0, 2, & 6 or
m 0, 1, & 4
$???/=

HPV test for men/women.

  • Digene® High-Risk HPV DNA Test
  • Digene® HPV DNA Test
  • Digene® HPV Genotyping PS Test
  • Hybribio®
    • HPV GenoArray Test Kit
    • Detects 15 high-risk HPV types: 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68. And 6 low-risk HPV types: 6, 11, 42, 43, 44, CP8304
    • Able to differentiate which types are positive.
    • May be available in Singapore soon.
  • Cobas® HPV Test
    • Cobas® HPV Test
    • Detects 14 high-risk HPV types: 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68
    • The test specifically identifies (types) HPV 16 and HPV 18, while concurrently detecting the rest of the high risk types (31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68)
    • Cost is SG$200/=
  • LINEAR ARRAY® HPV Genotyping Test
    • LINEAR ARRAY® HPV Genotyping Test
    • Identifies 37 high-risk HPV genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 73 (MM9), 82 (MM4) low-risk HPV genotypes 6, 11, 26, 40, 42, 53, 54, 55, 61, 62, 64, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 81, 83 (MM7), 84 (MM8), IS39, and CP6108
  • INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra
    • INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra
    • Identifies 15 high-risk HPV genotypes (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 73, 82) 3 probable high-risk HPV genotypes (26, 53, 66) 7 low-risk HPV genotypes (6, 11, 40, 43, 44, 54, 70) and some additional types (69, 71, 74).
  • PapilloCheck®
    • PapilloCheck®
    • Identifies 24 hiv-risk HPV types 16 18 31 33 35 39 45 51 52 53 56 58 59 66 68 70 73 82 and low-risk HPV types 6 11 40 42 43 44

Sexual risk (of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.

Timeline Event / Available resources
HIV STD Pregnancy
Before exposure
Abstain from sex, Be faithful, or Condom use
Circumcision (males only)
Contraception
(females only)
HIV PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) STD vaccine:
- Hepatitis vaccine
- HPV vaccine
STD / HIV exposure
Unsafe sex / unprotected sex:
No condom / Condom broke / Condom slip
0-72 hours HIV prevention
HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment
- Stop HIV infection after exposure.
STD testing
If STD symptoms appear, then do STD treatment.
- Males: Do not urinate for at least 4 hours before arriving.
- Females: testing is more accurate when you are not menstruating.
Emergency contraception
(females only)
2 weeks HIV DNA PCR test
1 month 20 minute SD Bioline HIV Ag/Ab Combo HIV rapid test:
- Fingerprick blood sampling.
3 months 20 minute OraQuick® HIV rapid test:
- Oral saliva or
- Fingerprick blood sampling.
Full & comprehensive STD testing
- Males: Do not urinate for at least 4 hours before arriving.
- Females: testing is more accurate when you are not menstruating.

References


Latest News

Exploiting high-throughput cell line drug screening studies to identify candidate therapeutic agents in head and neck cancer
Thu, 27 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0100 | Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations
Conclusion:

Review of the regulations for clinical research in herbal medicines in USA
Wed, 26 Nov 2014 20:18:32 +0100 | Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Abstract

Liquid‐based cytology and HPV DNA testing using intra‐anal specimens from HIV‐negative women with and without genital HPV‐induced lesions
Wed, 26 Nov 2014 04:52:12 +0100 | Diagnostic Cytopathology
ConclusionBased on the results, liquid‐based cytology may be used to detect intra‐anal lesions, especially among women who have a history of anal intercourse or who have genital HPV‐associated lesions at multiple sites. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Diagnostic Cytopathology)

HPV vaccines drive virulence evolution?
Wed, 26 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0100 | Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines hold great promise for preventing several cancers caused by HPV infections. Yet little attention has been given to whether HPV could respond evolutionarily to the new selection pressures imposed on it by the novel immunity response created by the vaccine. Here, we present and theoretically validate a mechanism by which the vaccine alters the transmission–recovery trade-off that constrains HPV's virulence such that higher oncogene expression is favoured. With a high oncogene expression strategy, the virus is able to increase its viral load and infected cell population before clearance by the vaccine, thus improving its chances of transmission. This new rapid cell-proliferation strategy is able to circulate between hosts with medium to high turno...

Clinical implications of hepatitis B viral infection in Epstein–Barr virus-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Wed, 26 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0100 | Journal of Clinical Virology
Oncoviruses contribute to the development of approximately 12% of human cancers and are considered to be an important factor in the activation of malignant cancer, including herpes virus with Kaposi's sarcoma, human papillomavirus with cervical cancer and head and neck cancer, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), human T cell lymphotropic virus-1 with adult T-cell leukemia, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)

Health economic analysis of human papillomavirus vaccines in women of Chile: perspective of the health care payer using a Markov model
Wed, 26 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0100 | BMC Public Health
Conclusions:

Molecular epidemiology and genotype distribution of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) among Arab women in the state of Qatar
Wed, 26 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0100 | Journal of Translational Medicine
Conclusions:

[News] Australian HPV vaccination programme yields results
Tue, 25 Nov 2014 21:23:04 +0100 | The Lancet Oncology
A new study suggests the prevalence of oncogenic strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) in young Australian women has fallen to the lowest level in high-income countries after a national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme was introduced in Australia in 2007. (Source: The Lancet Oncology)

Female urethral condyloma causing bladder outlet obstruction.
Tue, 25 Nov 2014 02:40:03 +0100 | International Neurourology Journal
Authors: Chae JY, Bae JH, Yoon CY, Park HS, Moon du G, Lee JG, Oh MM

Prevalence of Anogenital Warts in Men with HIV/AIDS and Associated Factors.
Tue, 25 Nov 2014 01:15:03 +0100 | Open AIDS Journal
CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrate that anogenital warts occur in almost one-third of the male population infected with HIV and factors associated with a higher risk of being diagnosed with anogenital warts were irregular cART use and co-infection with HSV, other variables could not be associated.