HIV Test | SINGAPORE STD ™
HIV Test | SINGAPORE STD ™ @singaporestd_com: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) test, Singapore. Private & confidential service.
Come to sunny Singapore to have your testing and treatment. Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
| SHIM CLINIC|
SINGAPORE STD ™
168 Bedok South Avenue 3 #01-473
Tel: (+65) 6446 7446
Fax: (+65) 6449 7446
24hr Answering Tel: (+65) 6333 5550
Web: HIV Test | SINGAPORE STD ™
| Opening Hours |
Monday to Friday: 9 am to 3 pm, 7 pm to 11 pm
Saturday & Sunday: 7 pm to 11 pm
Public Holidays: Closed
Last registration: one hour before closing time.
Walk-in clinic. Appointments not required.
Bring NRIC, Work Pass or Passport for registration.
Table of Contents HIV Test
HIV is the abbreviation for the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
HIV symptoms which may present in acute HIV infection: These are nonspecific symptoms and can present with other infections; consequently, they are unreliable indicators of HIV infection.
Remember, there is no HIV cure.
HIV window period is the time from HIV infection until a HIV Test can detect any change. Within the HIV window period, the HIV Test would be negative. During this period, the HIV viral load is extremely high, thus making the person highly infectious.
References HIV ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test generations:
- 4 weeks after exposure, a negative 4th generation HIV ELISA Test "is very reassuring / highly likely to exclude HIV infection."
- 12 weeks after exposure, a negative 3rd generation HIV ELISA Test "would definitively exclude HIV infection."
References HIV rapid test (20 minutes to results) Two types are available:
- 1st generation: HIV-1 IgG antibody
- 2nd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG antibodies
- 3rd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies
- 4th generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies and HIV p24 antigen
Note: If the clinic attendance is only for the HIV rapid test, then consultation fees are not added.
References HIV PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) HIV Risk (2009 figures)
Estimated HIV transmission risk per exposure for specific activities and events
|Activity ||Risk-per-exposure |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in high-income countries ||0.04% (1:2380) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in high-income countries ||0.08% (1:1234) |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in low-income countries ||0.38% (1:263) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in low-income countries ||0.30% (1:333) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner is asymptomatic ||0.07% (1:1428) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner has late-stage disease ||0.55% (1:180) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner unknown status ||0.27% (1:370) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner HIV positive ||0.82% (1:123) |
|Receptive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.18% (1:555) |
|Insertive anal sex, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.06% (1:1666) |
|Insertive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.04% (1:2500) |
|Receptive fellatio ||Estimates range from 0.00% to 0.04% (1:2500) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes at least two weeks antiretroviral therapy ||0.8% (1:125) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes combination therapy, viral load below 50 ||0.1% (1:1000) |
|Injecting drug use ||Estimates range from 0.63% (1:158) to 2.4% (1:41) |
|Needlestick injury, no other risk factors ||0.13% (1:769) |
|Blood transfusion with contaminated blood ||92.5% (9:10) |
Sources: vaginal sex;1 anal sex;2 fellatio;3 2 mother-to-child;4 other activities.5
- Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 9(2): 118-129, 2009
- Vittinghoff E et al. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology 150: 306-311, 1999
- Del Romero J et al. Evaluating the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected orogenital sex. AIDS 16(9): 1296-1297, 2002
- Townsend C et al. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000-2006. AIDS 22: 973-981, 2008
- Baggaley RF et al. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion. AIDS 20: 805-812, 2006
- HIV & AIDS Information :: How transmission occurs - Estimated risk per exposure
HIV Risk (2005 figures)
Estimated per-act risk for acquisition of HIV, by exposure route*
*Estimates of risk for transmission from sexual exposures assume no condom use.
|Exposure route||Risk per 10,000|
to an infected source
|Needle-sharing injection-drug use||67||0.67|
|Receptive anal intercourse||50||0.5|
|Percutaneous needle stick||30||0.3|
|Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse||10||0.1|
|Insertive anal intercourse||6.5||0.065|
|Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse||5||0.05|
|Receptive oral intercourse†||1||0.01|
|Insertive oral intercourse†||0.5||0.005|
†Source refers to oral intercourse performed on a man.
HIV risk (2002 figures)
HIV Risk Statistics (chances of getting HIV)
|HIV Risk Factors ||HIV Transmission Probability |
|Needle stick injury3 ||1/300 |
|Receptive anal intercourse4 ||1/100 |
|Receptive vaginal intercourse5 ||1/1000 |
|Insertive vaginal intercourse4 ||1/2000 |
|Insertive anal intercourse4 ||1/2500 |
|Receptive fellatio with ejaculation4 ||1/2500 |
|Sharing needles6 ||1/150 |
HIV prevention / HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment can prevent you from getting an HIV infection, and turning HIV positive.
- Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health Care Workers after Percutaneous Exposure. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1485-1490.
- Katz MH, Gerberding JL. Management of occupational and nonoccupational postexposure HIV prophylaxis. Current Inf Dis Reports. 2002;4:543-549.
- Gerberding JL. Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposure to HIV. Ann Intern Med. 1996;6:497-501
- Vitinghoff E, Douglas J, Judon F, et al. Per-Contact Risk of Human Immunodificiency Virus Transmision between Male Sexual Partners. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:306-311.
- Peterman TA, Stoneburner RL, Allen JR, et al. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission From Heterosexual Adults With Transfusion-Associated Infections. JAMA. 1988;259:55-58. [Erratum. JAMA. 1989;262:502]
- Kaplan EH, Heimer R. A Model-Based Estimate of HIV Infectivity via Needle Sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992;5:1116-1118.
Individuals are eligible for HIV PEP Treatment if all the following criteria are met:
Prompt antiviral therapy may reduce the risk of HIV transmission by as much as 80%.
- less than 72 hours has elapsed since exposure;
- the exposed individual is not known to be HIV infected;
- the person who is the source of exposure is HIV infected or has unknown HIV status;
- mucous membrane or non-intact skin was exposed to a potentially infectious body fluid;
For optimal efficacy, antiretroviral therapy should be started as soon as possible, ideally within 1 hour of exposure. So that you can remain HIV negative.
The medications and dosages are the same as those used for lifelong treatment of HIV patients. However, for HIV PEP treatment, it is taken for only a month.
References Drugs commonly used in HIV PEP: References TORCH
(of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.
Implementing Implementation Science: An Approach for HIV Prevention, Care and Treatment Programs.
Fri, 22 May 2015 00:22:03 +0100 | Current HIV Research
Authors: Lambdin BH, Cheng B, Peter T, Mbwambo J, Apollo T, Dunbar M, Udoh IC, Cattamanchi A, Geng EH, Volberding P
Red Nose Charity Celeb Supporters Include Kim Kardashian, Reese Witherspoon
Thu, 21 May 2015 22:44:01 +0100 | Healthy Living - The Huffington Post
The carpet won't be the only thing red at the Hammerstein Ballroom Thursday night.
[In Depth] Canadian registry to track thousands of pot smokers
Thu, 21 May 2015 22:01:30 +0100 | Science: Current Issue
Fifteen years after learning about the medical benefits of cannabis from patients in a sickle cell clinic in Kingston, Mark Ware is studying the drug on a grand scale. A pain management researcher at McGill University Health Centre in Montreal, Canada, he directs the Quebec Cannabis Registry, a new, one-of-a-kind database that aims to gather information on every patient prescribed marijuana in the province over the next 10 years—an estimated 3000 in all. By collecting data on symptoms, dosage, improvement, and side effects, the registry, launched on 11 May and funded by a grant from the nonprofit Canadian Consortium for the Investigation of Cannabinoids, aims to fill gaps in knowledge about the efficacy and safety of medical marijuana. Even as more and more states and countries legalize ...
Zimbabwe: Zimbabwe Has Highest Condom Usage in the World
Thu, 21 May 2015 15:28:10 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[News24Wire] Zimbabwe has the highest condom usage in the world and this has contributed to a reduction in HIV infections, the state-run National Aids Council (NAC) has revealed. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Cleric uses video to tell congregation she has HIV
Thu, 21 May 2015 11:38:32 +0100 | Telegraph Health
Watch this heartwarming video of a pastor who uses a series of cardboard messages to tell her congregation that she is HIV positive (Source: Telegraph Health)
Evaluation of 2 Novel Devices for Calculation of Fluid Requirements in Pediatric Burns
Thu, 21 May 2015 02:30:47 +0100 | Annals of Plastic Surgery
Conclusions: Both novel devices provide safer and faster alternatives to conventional methods for calculation of fluid requirements in pediatric burns. (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Lifetime suicide attempt history, quality of life, and objective functioning among HIV/AIDS patients with alcohol and illicit substance use disorders - Walter KN, Petry NM.
Wed, 20 May 2015 14:30:00 +0100 | SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated)
This cross-sectional study evaluated lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts in 170 HIV/AIDS patients with substance use disorders and the impact of suicide attempt history on subjective indices of quality of life and objective indices of cognitive and phy... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))
Africa: UN Agency Calls for Renewed Global Commitment to Develop Effective HIV Vaccine
Wed, 20 May 2015 12:04:20 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[UN News] To mark HIV Vaccine Awareness Day, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, or UNAIDS, has renewed its call for a sustained worldwide commitment to finding an effective HIV vaccine. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Work Productivity Loss Is Highest in U.S. Workers with AIDS, Broken...
Wed, 20 May 2015 11:10:16 +0100 | PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals
New results from the National Health and Wellness Survey show that although overall impairment is 15 percent for the U.S. workforce, impairment for people with AIDS or broken bones tops 40 percent.(PRWeb May 19, 2015)Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2015/05/prweb12724595.htm (Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals)
Screening and Treatment to Prevent Cryptococcal MeningitisScreening and Treatment to Prevent Cryptococcal Meningitis
Wed, 20 May 2015 08:14:09 +0100 | Medscape Today Headlines
Does cryptococcal antigen screening and testing have an impact on preventing cryptococcal meningitis in people with AIDS? JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)