HIV Test | SINGAPORE STD ™
HIV Test | SINGAPORE STD ™ @singaporestd_com: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) test, Singapore. Private & confidential service.
Come to sunny Singapore to have your testing and treatment. Singapore Ministry of Health registered general practice (GP) clinic:
| SHIM CLINIC|
SINGAPORE STD ™
168 Bedok South Avenue 3 #01-473
Tel: (+65) 6446 7446
Fax: (+65) 6449 7446
24hr Answering Tel: (+65) 6333 5550
Web: HIV Test | SINGAPORE STD ™
| Opening Hours |
Monday to Friday: 9 am to 3 pm, 7 pm to 11 pm
Saturday & Sunday: 7 pm to 11 pm
Public Holidays: Closed
Last registration: one hour before closing time.
Walk-in clinic. Appointments not required.
Bring NRIC, Work Pass or Passport for registration.
Table of Contents HIV Test
HIV is the abbreviation for the human immunodeficiency virus, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
HIV symptoms which may present in acute HIV infection: These are nonspecific symptoms and can present with other infections; consequently, they are unreliable indicators of HIV infection.
Remember, there is no HIV cure.
HIV window period is the time from HIV infection until a HIV Test can detect any change. Within the HIV window period, the HIV Test would be negative. During this period, the HIV viral load is extremely high, thus making the person highly infectious.
References HIV ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test generations:
- 4 weeks after exposure, a negative 4th generation HIV ELISA Test "is very reassuring / highly likely to exclude HIV infection."
- 12 weeks after exposure, a negative 3rd generation HIV ELISA Test "would definitively exclude HIV infection."
References HIV rapid test (20 minutes to results) Two types are available:
- 1st generation: HIV-1 IgG antibody
- 2nd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG antibodies
- 3rd generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies
- 4th generation: HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG & IgM antibodies and HIV p24 antigen
Note: If the clinic attendance is only for the HIV rapid test, then consultation fees are not added.
References HIV PCR (polymerase chain reaction) NAT (nucleic acid test) HIV Risk (2009 figures)
Estimated HIV transmission risk per exposure for specific activities and events
|Activity ||Risk-per-exposure |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in high-income countries ||0.04% (1:2380) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in high-income countries ||0.08% (1:1234) |
|Vaginal sex, female-to-male, studies in low-income countries ||0.38% (1:263) |
|Vaginal sex, male-to-female, studies in low-income countries ||0.30% (1:333) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner is asymptomatic ||0.07% (1:1428) |
|Vaginal sex, source partner has late-stage disease ||0.55% (1:180) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner unknown status ||0.27% (1:370) |
|Receptive anal sex amongst gay men, partner HIV positive ||0.82% (1:123) |
|Receptive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.18% (1:555) |
|Insertive anal sex, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.06% (1:1666) |
|Insertive anal sex with condom, gay men, partner unknown status ||0.04% (1:2500) |
|Receptive fellatio ||Estimates range from 0.00% to 0.04% (1:2500) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes at least two weeks antiretroviral therapy ||0.8% (1:125) |
|Mother-to-child, mother takes combination therapy, viral load below 50 ||0.1% (1:1000) |
|Injecting drug use ||Estimates range from 0.63% (1:158) to 2.4% (1:41) |
|Needlestick injury, no other risk factors ||0.13% (1:769) |
|Blood transfusion with contaminated blood ||92.5% (9:10) |
Sources: vaginal sex;1 anal sex;2 fellatio;3 2 mother-to-child;4 other activities.5
- Boily MC et al. Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Lancet Infect Dis 9(2): 118-129, 2009
- Vittinghoff E et al. Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology 150: 306-311, 1999
- Del Romero J et al. Evaluating the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected orogenital sex. AIDS 16(9): 1296-1297, 2002
- Townsend C et al. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000-2006. AIDS 22: 973-981, 2008
- Baggaley RF et al. Risk of HIV-1 transmission for parenteral exposure and blood transfusion. AIDS 20: 805-812, 2006
- HIV & AIDS Information :: How transmission occurs - Estimated risk per exposure
HIV Risk (2005 figures)
Estimated per-act risk for acquisition of HIV, by exposure route*
*Estimates of risk for transmission from sexual exposures assume no condom use.
|Exposure route||Risk per 10,000|
to an infected source
|Needle-sharing injection-drug use||67||0.67|
|Receptive anal intercourse||50||0.5|
|Percutaneous needle stick||30||0.3|
|Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse||10||0.1|
|Insertive anal intercourse||6.5||0.065|
|Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse||5||0.05|
|Receptive oral intercourse†||1||0.01|
|Insertive oral intercourse†||0.5||0.005|
†Source refers to oral intercourse performed on a man.
HIV risk (2002 figures)
HIV Risk Statistics (chances of getting HIV)
|HIV Risk Factors ||HIV Transmission Probability |
|Needle stick injury3 ||1/300 |
|Receptive anal intercourse4 ||1/100 |
|Receptive vaginal intercourse5 ||1/1000 |
|Insertive vaginal intercourse4 ||1/2000 |
|Insertive anal intercourse4 ||1/2500 |
|Receptive fellatio with ejaculation4 ||1/2500 |
|Sharing needles6 ||1/150 |
HIV prevention / HIV PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) treatment can prevent you from getting an HIV infection, and turning HIV positive.
- Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A Case-Control Study of HIV Seroconversion in Health Care Workers after Percutaneous Exposure. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1485-1490.
- Katz MH, Gerberding JL. Management of occupational and nonoccupational postexposure HIV prophylaxis. Current Inf Dis Reports. 2002;4:543-549.
- Gerberding JL. Prophylaxis for Occupational Exposure to HIV. Ann Intern Med. 1996;6:497-501
- Vitinghoff E, Douglas J, Judon F, et al. Per-Contact Risk of Human Immunodificiency Virus Transmision between Male Sexual Partners. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150:306-311.
- Peterman TA, Stoneburner RL, Allen JR, et al. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission From Heterosexual Adults With Transfusion-Associated Infections. JAMA. 1988;259:55-58. [Erratum. JAMA. 1989;262:502]
- Kaplan EH, Heimer R. A Model-Based Estimate of HIV Infectivity via Needle Sharing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1992;5:1116-1118.
Individuals are eligible for HIV PEP Treatment if all the following criteria are met:
Prompt antiviral therapy may reduce the risk of HIV transmission by as much as 80%.
- less than 72 hours has elapsed since exposure;
- the exposed individual is not known to be HIV infected;
- the person who is the source of exposure is HIV infected or has unknown HIV status;
- mucous membrane or non-intact skin was exposed to a potentially infectious body fluid;
For optimal efficacy, antiretroviral therapy should be started as soon as possible, ideally within 1 hour of exposure. So that you can remain HIV negative.
The medications and dosages are the same as those used for lifelong treatment of HIV patients. However, for HIV PEP treatment, it is taken for only a month.
References Drugs commonly used in HIV PEP: References TORCH
(of HIV/STD/pregnancy), and what you can do before and after exposure.
Determination of HIV-1 coreceptor tropism using proviral DNA in women before and after viral suppression.
Sat, 25 Apr 2015 01:46:02 +0100 | AIDS Research and Therapy
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that pvDNA tropism in women with HIV-1 suppression is concordant with prior RNA tropism results, even after a median time of >4 years. pvDNA tropism testing may be useful to determine eligibility of patients with viral suppression to switch to a CCR5-antagonist based regimen as well as for research purposes.
Herpes Virus Entry Mediator, which Decreases in HIV Infection, Can Enhance the Suppressive Activity of Regulatory T Cell and Predict Recovery of CD4+T-cells During HAART.
Sat, 25 Apr 2015 01:34:02 +0100 | Current HIV Research
In this study, we found that the blockage of the HVEM could weaken Tregs' suppressive activity to effector T cells (Teffs). HVEM expression is reduced during the asymptomatic phase of HIV infection and fairly predictive of the recovery of CD4+T-cells in response to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), more so than nadir CD4+T-cell count or viral load. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the importance of HVEM in relation to Treg function and HIV disease progression, which would have therapeutic implications and provide insight into the pathogenesis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Sudan: U.S. $81 Million Announced to Fight Malaria in Sudan
Fri, 24 Apr 2015 17:06:45 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[UNDP] Geneva -A new agreement reached in Sudan by the UN Development Programme (UNDP) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is set to provide a major boost in the fight against malaria in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Africa: Malaria Vaccine Trial Raises Hopes
Fri, 24 Apr 2015 16:01:12 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine
[Global Fund] Geneva -Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria welcome the results of a large-scale trial of a malaria vaccine candidate in sub-Saharan Africa. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Nigeria: 3.2 Million Nigerians Live With HIV, Society Insists
Fri, 24 Apr 2015 10:58:31 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Daily Trust] The Society for Family Health says more than 3.2 million Nigerians are still living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Botswana: Behavioural Change Remains Challenge
Fri, 24 Apr 2015 10:21:25 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Botswana Daily News] Gaborone -Progress made with regards to addressing issues of HIV/AIDS is impressive, but the nation is still faced with a challenge of behavioural change, the Vice President, Mr Mokgweetsi Masisi has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: 'Yedi Is Kicking Against Malaria'
Fri, 24 Apr 2015 09:55:30 +0100 | AllAfrica News: Malaria
[This Day] As the World Malaria Day is marked tomorrow with a wide range of activities across the globe, the Youth Empowerment and Development Initiative (YEDI), a Nigerian-run Non-Governmental Organisation that creates awareness on malaria and HIV/AIDS, is joining the bandwagon with its "Kick Against Malaria", football tournament billed to hold in various communities Nigeria. The Executive Director, YEDI, Anuoluwa Ishola, tells Mary Ekah the essence of the football tournament and its impacts on lives (Source: AllAfrica News: Malaria)
Zimbabwe: Fighting Sexual Abuse Against Children With Disabilities.
Fri, 24 Apr 2015 07:06:27 +0100 | AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs
[Financial Gazette] Sexual abuse of disabled children is a deplorable, vile, and detestable act. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Guidelines for antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infected adults and adolescents 2014, Thailand
Fri, 24 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | AIDS Research and Therapy
New evidence has emerged regarding when to commence antiretroviral therapy (ART), optimal treatment regimens, management of HIV co-infection with opportunistic infections, and management of ART failure. The 2014 guidelines were developed by the collaborations of the Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) and the Thai AIDS Society (TAS). One of the major changes in the guidelines included recommending to initiating ART irrespective of CD4 cell count. However, it is with an emphasis that commencing HAART at CD4 cell count above 500 cell/mm3 is for public health, in term of preventing HIV transmission and personal benefit. In tuberculosis co-infected patients with CD4 cell counts ≤50 cells/mm3 or with CD4 cell counts >50 cells/mm3 who have severe clinical disease, A...
Piloting a Social Networks Strategy to Increase HIV Testing and Counseling Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Greater Accra and Ashanti Region, Ghana
Fri, 24 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100 | AIDS and Behavior