What Causes Human Papillomavirus?

Warts are the causes of an HPV infection. There exist more than 100 types of HPV or human Papillomavirus. Warts on the various parts of your body are from the different kinds of HPV infection. Some varieties of HPV infection causes warts that commonly affect the neck and face while some types are responsible for warts on the feet which are commonly called plantar warts. The genital area is affected by more than 40 various types of HPV infection.

Cancer is not caused by most HPV infections. However, there are some strains of HPV in the genitals that can cause cervical cancer. The cervix is the passageway between the uterus and the vagina. The HPV vaccine will be able to protect and help stop the development of cervical cancer or genital warts that are caused by some types of genital HPV.

Most of the time the immune system of the body fights off an HPV infection before it can develop any warts. If warts make an appearance they may differ in shapes and sizes, depending on what type of HPV:

  • Flat Warts. They are a darker shade than your skin color and are lesions that are slightly raised and flat on the top. Normally scratched areas like the neck and face are their natural habitat. Flat warts that are caused by an HPV infection affect young adults, children, and adolescents.
  • Genital warts. They may be small with protrusions that are stem-like or bumps that are shaped like a cauliflower or lesions that are flat shaped. Genital warts in women are commonly found on the vulva but may also appear in the vagina, near the anus or on the cervix. Genital warts in men can be found around the anus, penis, and scrotum. They may cause itchiness but hardly ever cause pain or discomfort.
  • Plantar warts. They are grainy in texture that is hard to touch which are usually found on hard pressure areas such as the balls or heels of the feet. Their growth may be uncomfortable and painful.
  • Common warts. They are raised bumps that are rough in texture which are usually found on the elbows, hands or fingers. They may cause pain as they bleed and injure easily. Most of the time their appearance is a nuisance.

There are only two specific strains of genital HPV that are the cause of most cervical cancers. Warts are not caused by these two HPV types which are the reason women are usually unaware that they are infected with it. There are also no signs and symptoms for the early phases of cervical cancer.

It is very important that women get Pap tests regularly. Pap tests can detect changes in the cervix that may develop to cancer. It is recommended that women, ages from 21 to 29 get a Pap test every three years, while women, from ages 30 to 65 every five years which has to be accompanied with DNA HPV tests at the same time.

Important Information Regarding Chlamydia

Chlamydia is seen as a very common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that may or may not show signs and symptoms once an individual is infected. Men and women will feel the same symptoms such as pain during urination, and discharges from the vagina or penis if ever it is manifested.

Chlamydia signs and symptoms will not be manifested in almost 25 to 30% of women and men infected with the disease. Yet, should symptoms be felt, there will be a difference between men and women.

The symptoms in men are:

  • Pain and discharges from the rectal area
  • Stinging pain during urination
  • Pain and tenderness in the testicles
  • Penile discharges

The symptoms in women are:

  • Pain with discharges from the rectum
  • Vaginal discharges
  • Burning pain during urination
  • Painful sensation during sexual intercourse

Chlamydia trachomatis is the bacteria that cause the Chlamydia infection. The greatest risk groups to acquire this very common sexually transmitted infection are the ones who are active sexually with different sexual partners.

It is quite rare for infants to become infected when an infected mother gives a vaginal birth. But, if infection occurs, the infant may be affected by pneumonia and eye infection which is Chlamydia-related.

If symptoms are present it will be the basis for the initial diagnosis. The diagnosis will be fully formed when the necessary discharges are cultured and analyzed.

To fight off the infection, the mode of treatment usually uses antibiotics such as erythromycin, tetracycline, and azithromycin. After four weeks, a follow-up evaluation is necessary to find out if the infection has been eradicated from the body. To contain the spread of the infection, the infected person is requested to inform about the condition to his or her sexual partners. This is also one way of making the other partners submit to an STD testing.

If the treatment is done right away, good results are expected which also does away with any complications that will last a lifetime. On the other hand, delayed or improper treatment will cause additional complications. Chlamydia, if untreated in a woman will cause infection in the fallopian tubes or uterus leading to PID or Pelvic Inflammatory Disease with complications of possible ectopic pregnancy or infertility.

The Chlamydia infection can be prevented if people who are sexually active practice safe sex. Properly using protective barriers such as a condom or having a monogamous relationship where both partners are not infected will prevent this infection. It is also recommended that a yearly Chlamydia infection screening be a requirement for sexually active women. The reason for this is not only for health reasons but also one way of preventing and containing the spread of the infection. Statistics has shown that people infected with Chlamydia seem to be increasing yearly even with the sexual health education programs implemented by the different health organizations.

For this purpose, people are encouraged to take an active role in their individual health by learning everything about sexually transmitted diseases.

Chlamydia Symptoms in Men and Women

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease that is particularly common among American women and men under 25 years of age which is transmitted through sexual intercourse. The body parts that it can infect are the throat, penis, eye, vagina, anus, urethra, and cervix. It is more common than syphilis and gonorrhea which affects around three million of the American population each year.

Chlamydia is an asymptomatic STD that infected people are unaware of when they have it – particularly women. 5 to 10 days after exposure, these are the symptoms, should they happen:


A strong-smelling yellow colored discharge from the cervix

Pain in the abdominal area

Vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse

Abnormal discharges from the vagina

Swelling around the anus or inside the vagina

Bleeding between periods

Frequency of urination

Slight fever

Burning sensation or pain when urinating

Painful sexual intercourse


Swelling around the anal area

Burning or pain during urination

Tender or swollen testicles

Milky or pus or watery discharges from the penis

One of the common symptoms of Chlamydia in both men and women is a bleeding and itchy anus which could lead to diarrhea and discharges. Discharges accompanied by itching and redness are the symptoms if Chlamydia has infected the eyes. Soreness of the throat will be experienced if Chlamydia has infected the throat.

The symptoms in men are milder and could only happen during the morning. This is the main factor for the widespread infection of Chlamydia. A consultation and check-up need to be arranged as early as possible with a healthcare professional should your partner or you experience the symptoms that have been listed. It is even more important to have treatment if you happen to be pregnant.

Health complications

Because of the asymptomatic nature of Chlamydia it can take a long time before an infected person gets tested and treated. This has led to serious health complications especially for women who may acquire pelvic inflammatory disease or PID which could lead to infertility.

Epididymitis is the serious health condition that men will acquire if Chlamydia is left untreated. It could cause infertility and sometimes lead to reactive arthritis which can develop disabling pain and swelling in the joints.

Chlamydia tests

The first symptom that a health care professional can see which could lead to a diagnosis of Chlamydia would be the discharges coming from the cervix. Other cell specimens that can positively identify Chlamydia would be taken from the anus, penis, and urethra. A urine test can also be another basis for diagnosing Chlamydia.



Once diagnosed, it is fairly easy to treat Chlamydia. There are single dose antibiotics that can clear up Chlamydia, but there are also treatment programs that will last for seven days. Your health care professional will know what will work best for your case.

Before resuming any sexual activity, both you and your partner needs to get an STD test. This is to avoid getting infected or re-infected. You will also be advised to return in 3 to 4 months for Chlamydia re-testing.